01 июля 2002 00:00 |
Valve replacement in patients on chronic renal dialysis: implications for valve prosthesis selection
Background. Reports are sparse describing heart valve replacement in patients
with end-stage renal disease. This review assesses a 15−year experience and outcomes after valve replacement in patients on chronic preoperative renal dialysis.
Methods. A computerized database, hospital records, and telephone contact provided outcome data for patients on chronic dialysis undergoing valve replacement between March 22, 1985, and October 13, 2000, in two hospitals.
Seventy-two patients underwent 95 valve procedures (74 operations). Ages ranged from 23 years to 84 years (mean, 57 years). Fifty-five aortic, 30 mitral, and 3 tricuspid valve replacements and 7 valvuloplasties were performed. Six of the 74 procedures were reoperative valve replacements. In the 46 patients with reliable long-term (greater than 30 days) follow-up data, significant bleeding or stroke was documented in 17 of 34 patients with a mechanical valve and 1 of 12 patients with a bioprosthetic valve. Overall survival (including two operative deaths) was 72.8% at 3 months, 65.4% at 6 months, 60.5% at 1 year, 39.8% at 2 years, 28.5% at 3 years, and 15.9% at 6 years (Kaplan-Meier). Type of valve implanted did not influence early and late survival.
Conclusions. In this series of patients on chronic dialysis, survival appears to justify valve replacement. However, the sixfold higher incidence of late bleeding or stroke in patients on dialysis with a mechanical valve requiring warfarin suggests that bioprosthetic valves are the valve substitute of choice in patients on chronic dialysis.